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LU-MADD Macroeconomic and Demographic Database


A large and detailed collection of annual demographic and macroeconomic data about Sweden.

The Lund University Macroeconomic and Demographic Database (LU-MADD) is developed and maintained by the Department of Economic History at Lund University. The goal of the database is to assemble in one place a large and detailed collection of annual demographic and macroeconomic data about Sweden, and to make these data easily accessible to students, teachers and researchers in Sweden and around the world.

This site provides both documentation and raw data series, as well as contact information for those researchers responsible for the initial data collection. The data are organized by research area, and are accesible through links in each section. A brief description of each data series is provided on the download page, and a more detailed description is available as a text file.

The data currently provided comes largely as the result of research within two groups:

The Research Group in Population Economics
The Research programme on Economic Growth and Structural Change

You are welcome to download and make use of any data posted here. We do ask that you acknowledge LU-MADD as the source of the data and provide our complete URL ( along with the initial data source so that others can take advantage of this collection.

Database subcategories

Research on education in an economic and social context has been carried out at the Lund University Department of Economic History since the 1970s. It was pioneered by the late professor Rolf Ohlsson and resulted in several books and articles by Ohlsson, as well as PhD dissertations by Lars Pettersson (1983) and Anders Nilsson (1984).

A recent project within this field was Knowledge, Skills and Economic Growth, 1870-2000 (FAS 2002:0649) led by Jonas Ljungberg.

Among the publications of this project are, so far:

  • A PhD dissertation by Fay Lundh Nilsson (2007), Lönande lärande. Teknologisk förändring, yrkesskicklighet och lön i svensk verkstadsindustri omkring 1900 [Profitable Learning – technological change, skills and wages in the Swedish engineering industry around 1900] (Lund Studies in Economic History, 40),
  • A booklet by Anders Nilsson (2008), Yrkesutbildningen i Sverige 1850-1910 [Vocational education in Sweden, 1850-1910].
  • Årsböcker i svensk undervisningshistoria, vol 208,
  • An article where the time series on human capital stocks and average years of schooling, for Sweden 1870-2000, are presented and analysed (Ljungberg and Nilsson 2009 – available online).
  • Within this field is also Jonas Ljungberg (2004), ’Did Higher Technical Education Pay?’ (in J. Ljungberg and J-P Smits (eds), Technology and Human Capital in Historical Perspective, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan)


Human capital stocks (STOCK) and average years of schooling (School): Sweden , 1870-2000 .xls .doc

Studies in monetary and financial history is an established research field at the Department of Economic History at Lund university.

The research was initially aimed at economic policy and money and prices in 18th century Sweden (see Göran Ahlström 1972, 1974, 1989), foreign trade and finance (Gunnar Fridlizius 1959 and 1981) and the history of financial institutions (see Göran Ahlström, Lars Pettersson and Lennart Schön 1989).

Current research undertakings are directed towards exchange rates and market integration, monetary policy in the 19th and 20th century Sweden (Håkan Lobell 1995, 2000 and 2002), the development of monetary theory in early 19th century Sweden (Håkan Lobell and Lars Pettersson) and Sweden's entry and role in the Bretton Woodssystem (Göran Ahlström and Benny Carlsson).

A selection of data from this accumulated research is presented in the LU-MADD database.


  • Exchange Rates
  • Money Stock and Components
  • Foreign Exchange Market
  • Import and Export of Gold and Silver 1836-1950 .xls  .doc
  • Riksbanken (The Bank of Sweden)
  • The Riksbank Purchases and Selling of Foreign Exchange .xls .doc
  • Interest rates

The primary focus of the research has been historical demography, with an extensive line of research into the economic, social, and demographic aspects of life in pre-industrial Sweden.

Another field of research has been the integration of immigrants, with studies concerning employment, income, return migration, fertility, and health.

A selection of data useful in the study of historical and current demography is presented in the LU-MADD database.


Accumulated Fertility, 1735 - 1983 .xls .doc

Live Births and Deaths, 1749 - 1998
5 year periods .xls .doc
Yearly data .xls .doc

Marriages and Divorces 1749 - 1998
5 year periods .xls .doc
Yearly data .xls .doc

Mean Age at Marriage 1861 - 1997
5 year periods .xls .doc
Yearly data .xls .doc

Migration 1749 - 1998
5 year periods .xls .doc
Yearly data .xls .doc

Share never married 1876 - 1977 .xls .doc

Population Growth 1749 - 1998
5 year periods .xls .doc
Yearly data .xls .doc

Prices and wages have long been a central part of the research at the department of economic history in Lund. Studies in price and wage history began in the 1950s and one of its first major achievements was the work by Lennart Jörberg; A History of Prices in Sweden 1732–1914 (Lund, 1972).

Jörberg assembled and analysed prices on a large number of mainly agricultural products in twenty-four counties in Sweden. Numerous price series and price deflators were constructed and analysed in the research project and book series Historiska nationalräkenskaper för Sverige 1800–1980 Vol. 1-9. [Historical National Accounts for Sweden 1800–1980 Vol. 1-9.] (Lennart Schön, Olle Krantz, Jonas Ljungberg and Lars Pettersson (Lund, 1986–1995)).

A number of dissertations in price and wage history have also been published. Jonas Ljungberg’s Priser och marknadskrafter i Sverige 1885–1969 [Prices and Market Processes in Sweden 1885–1969] (Lund, 1990) analyse the long-term behaviour of prices on industrial products in Sweden. Data on gender- and skill differentiated wages are assembled and analysed in a long-term perspective by Lars Svensson in Closing the Gender Gap. Determinants of Changes in the Female-to-Male Wage Ratio in Swedish Manufacturing 1913-1990. (Lund, 1995).

A selection of price and wage data from this accumulated research is presented in the LU-MADD database.

Agricultural products

Butter Prices 1803-1914 .xls .doc

Beef Prices 1803-1914 .xls .doc
Pork Prices 1803-1914 .xls .doc

Barley Prices 1794-1914 .xls .doc
Oat Prices 1776-1914 .xls .doc
Rye Prices 1776-1914 .xls .doc
Wheat Prices 1803-1914 .xls .doc

Cow Prices 1803-1914 .xls .doc
Oxen Prices 1803-1914 .xls .doc
Pig Prices 1803-1914 .xls .doc
Sheep Prices 1803-1914 .xls .doc


Log Timber Prices 1794-1914 .xls .doc

Sawn Products

Paper and Pulp

Manufacturing Industry Products

Branch Price Index 1885–1969: (1910/12=100)
Iron and Steel Works .xls .doc
Metal Works .xls .doc
Iron and Metal Manufacturing .xls .doc
Machinery Industries .xls .doc
Electro Technical Industry .xls .doc
Shipbuilding Industry .xls .doc
Motor Industry .xls .doc
Bicycle Industry .xls .doc
Mining Industry .xls .doc

Glass Industry .xls .doc
Brickwork and Cement Industries .xls .doc

Sawmill Industries .xls .doc
Joinery Industry .xls .doc

Pulp and Paper Industries .xls .doc
Other Paper and Package Industries .xls .doc
Printing Industry .xls .doc

Butchery Industry .xls .doc
Dairies .xls .doc
Oil and Fat Industry .xls .doc
Milling Industry .xls .doc
Bakery Industry .xls .doc
Sugar Industry .xls .doc
Confectionery Industries .xls .doc
Other Food Industries .xls .doc
Liqour Industry .xls .doc
Breweries .xls .doc
Tobacco Industry .xls .doc

Spinning and Weaving Industries .xls .doc
Ready-made Clothes Industry .xls .doc
Boots and Shoe Industry .xls .doc

Tanneries .xls .doc
Rubber Products Industry .xls .doc  

Fertilizer Industry .xls .doc
Dye Industry .xls .doc
Soap and Detergents Industry .xls .doc
Chemicals Industry .xls .doc
Technic-chemical Industry .xls .doc
Petrol Refineries .xls .doc

Main Branch Price Index and PPI 1885–1969: (1910/12=100)
Mining and Metalwork Industries .xls .doc
Stone and Glass Industries .xls .doc
Wood Industries .xls .doc
Paper and Printing Industries .xls .doc
Foodstuff Industries .xls .doc
Textiles and Clothing Industries .xls .doc
Leather and Rubber Industries .xls .doc
Chemical Industries .xls .doc
Electricity and Energy Industries .xls .doc
Producer Price Index 1885–1969 .xls .doc

Raw Materials


Day Wages 1803-1914 .xls .doc



The newest version of Swedish Historical National Accounts can be retreived from the Economic History Data database. 

Contact Håkan Lobell for getting access to earlier versions.