What do we mean when we say leadership – and how is it different from management? Management focuses on behaviour and results and getting things done through planning, organising, monitoring and controlling, whereas leadership is more about what people think, value and feel – and how these things are linked to the environment, the unit, and the work.
Managers and subordinates are not the same as leaders and followers. A leader is someone who understands the context, the meaning of culture and the local conditions, who maintains reciprocity in relationships, incorporates the complexity of the organisation, avoids getting stuck in abstract ideals – and understands that leadership is about hearts and minds.
Leadership is about hearts and minds
“Leadership is about relationships, and it is not only important what managers do, but how employees relate to it. Most managers are sensitive to their employees’ perceptions, and leadership efforts are often formed by expectations, demands and resistance. If they believe that someone will oppose their attempt to influence, managers adjust their leadership accordingly”, says Professor of Business Administration Stefan Sveningsson.
Devoting time to understanding and interpreting
The literature on leadership is extensive. However, unlike the majority of the work which is solely based on what managers and employees themselves have said and responded in surveys, researchers at the School of Economics and Management have observed interactions, conducted in-depth interviews, devoted time to understanding the organisational context, and critically interpreted these results.
Reflexive leadership – where both senior and junior employees carefully consider the structure of the organisation and how leadership and other aspects can make the workplace work well – is emphasised in particular: to think broadly and critically about their own thoughts and actions in relation to others.